Kinematics of motion
ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTORS OF MOTION
Descriptions of Motion
Superficial (close to surface), deep (away from surface), anterior (front), posterior (rear), medial (near mid-line), lateral (away from mid-line), superior (relative highest position), inferior (relative lowest position), proximal (near point of attachment to body), distal (furthest away from body attachment).
Joint Movement Patterns
Abduction (take away from mid-line), adduction (bring towards mid-line) internal–external rotation (lower leg inward and outward rotation about long axis), plantar- and dorsi flexion (pointing toes or bringing toes towards the shin), extension and flexion (straightening or bringing segments closer together), hyper-extension (excessive extension).
Ankle Joint Movements
Inversion and eversion (heel rolling outwards or inwards), pronation (complex tri-planar movement in foot involving eversion, abduction and dorsi exion), supination (tri-planar movement in foot involving inversion, adduction and plantar- exion).
Specific Joint Movement
Valgus (lower limb segment rotated about anterior–posterior axis through knee away from mid-line of body), varus (as for valgus but rotation towards mid-line), horizontal abduction and adduction (arm held out in front in transverse plane and then abducted or adducted), circumduction (rotation of a part or segment in a circular manner).
Parallel (equidistant and never intersecting), degrees of freedom (method used to describe movement or position), diagonal plane (a at surface that is slanted), tension (to stretch or pull apart), compression (to squeeze together), elevate and depress (to raise up or push down).